HAVE THE MOST INFLUENCE ON THE CLIMATE
On 04/10/1992 and 02/24/2000 ) in the eastern Philippines
the Mayon has emitted a column of smoke and ash that
reached 13 km altitude. This volcano is among the most
dangerous and active on Earth. In 2000 volcanic ash
rains plunged the villages into darkness at the foot
of the Philippine volcano Mayon up to 12 km from the
These last 400 years it has been 49 times in eruption,
the most important was in 1814 when the summit of Mayon
exploded. The following year, in Indonesia, the Tambora
erupted. These volcanoes, particularly the Tambora had
a significant effect on climate.
Click here for the eruption of Mayon in 2000.
From 15 to 21/08/1991 the Hudson volcano in Chile
exploded. A cloud of dust amounted up to 18 km in height
and it steered for south from the southern end of America
by surrounding the Antarctic continent. The cloud had
250,000 tons of sulfur
dioxide, dispersed in an area of 270.000
From the ashes of this volcano was found in Antarctica.
On 11/07/1991 in Philippines, the Pinatubo erupted while
it was dormant for over six centuries. A total of 20
million tons of sulfur dioxide were released into the
atmosphere at a height of 20 km. All this gas caused
reduction of 1 to 5% of solar radiation received
on the earth, or -3,50 W/m2, resulting in
a drop in temperature of 0,10 to 0,50°C and 1,50°C
at high latitudes for about 3 years. In the stratosphere,
the presence of a cloud composed of volcanic fine particles
accentuated the red tones of the sky at night which
gave a real blaze of heaven. Researchers assume that
the hurricanes Andrew and Iniki in fall 1992, as well
as heavy rainfall in the US Midwest in the summer of
1993 could be the consequences of the atmospheric effect
of this eruption.
During the eruption of Pinatubo is high
in the sky up to 20 km in height..
NEVADO DEL RUIZ :
On 11/03/1985 in Colombia the Nevado del Ruiz, which
rises to 5390 m altitude has ejected 0,56.km3
stratospheric aerosols. From the 11/13/1985 the
ashes have covered the area by more than 15 km radius.
It was the deadliest eruption with 24,000
Its latter most important eruptions were in 1985
(VEI 3), 1845 (VEI 3), 1595 (VEI 4), 1350 ?(VEI 4)...
On 03/29/1982 in Mexico, El Chichon has ejected
into the atmosphere up to 20 million tons of sulfur
which is mounted at 35 km. This cloud has moved both
east and west under the influence of winds blowing in
different directions depending on their altitude. The
volcanic cloud has triggered a series of optical effects.
In Arizona, abnormally long and brilliant sunsets occurred.
This volcano sent so much ashes in the atmosphere than
the sky was darkened for 2 days. After the eruption
of Chichon, the temperature of the Earth has decreased
by about 0,30°C !
According to some experts this eruption
may have had other effects on Earth's climate. It might
cause a sudden change in atmospheric and oceanic circulation
in the equatorial regions of the Pacific Ocean, which
would have had an effect on El
Niño. The consequences were abnormal weather
on the South American continent.
After more than a century of rest, the 05/18/1980 in
United States the Mount St-Helens volcano woke up and
it exploded with an energy equivalent to 500 times that
of the Hiroshima bomb after the soil had risen by 1.50
meters every day. The
ashes and volcanic dust amounted to 20 km in the stratosphere
and circled the Earth in 15 days. These 540 000 tonnes
of stratospheric aerosols have reduced the temperature
of the northern hemisphere of 0,10°C. During the
eruption in a town about 430 km from the volcano almost
a centimeter ash fell. The breath of the eruption approaching
the speed of sound, destroyed everything within a radius
of 27 km. After the eruption the volcano lost 400 meters
According vulcanologist studies from 10.000
years the Mount St. Helens experienced a major eruption
by century. He had an activity in 1800, 1813, 1831,
1836 and sporadically between 1842 and 1857. Its last
eruptions were in 1957, 1980, 1986, 1991.
Click here to see a video of the eruption of Mount Saint Helens
On 01/22/1976 the Augustine volcano in
Alaska in the US awoke. A column of ash that rose during
the eruption disrupted air traffic and ash fell in Anchorage.
The 0.60 km3 d'aérosols qui c'est
élevées dans la stratosphère ce
qui a perturbé le climat de la Terre.
This volcano in the southern part of the island
of Guadeloupe, of an altitude of 1467 m, is a stratovolcano
whose summit is a dome.
10 eruptions of explosive type occurred since the
sixteenth century whose two most intense phreatic eruptions
occurred in 1797/1798 and in 1976/1977 with 26 major
explosions in the ultimate of the last major explosive
The last major eruptions were those of 1902, 1913,
1914, 1917, 1976/1977. This one of 1812 had much effect
on the climate all the more than the same there was
the eruption of Awu Indonesia followed by the eruption
of Vesuvius in 1813, the Mayon the following year and
the Tambora in 1815.
Eruption de 1976-77
On 03/17/1963 at Bali island in Indonesia Agung volcano
erupted ejecting 10-20000000 tons of dust into the upper
atmosphere. This reduced the atmospheric transparency
of 5% and thus decreased the temperature of 0,30°C
for 3 years. But in the stratosphere the temperature rose
4 to 8°C above normal.
06.06.1912, the highest volcano at 2 450.m
altitude, located in Alaska, erupted after a very long
and very violent seismic crisis. It ejected 12 Km³
of magma on Earth and sent 20 million
tons of sulfur into the atmosphere or 35 km3.
This has reduced the temperature of 0,20°C. The
days that followed the eruption it was night.
The explosion of Katmai was one of the strongest
happened in history of Alaska. It was heard to 1600
kilometers around. Then the ash fall has been so significant
that at 160 km from the volcano the roofs of houses
collapsed. This was the 4th largest eruption of these
100,000 years after the
Toba, Tambora and Taupo.
The eruption made it loose 400 m and its summit
is being cut by a caldera of 4 km in diameter and 600
m deep. A dome (the Novarupta) of 250 m in diameter
and 60 m height was formed at the end of the eruption.
A volcano eruption in 1994
MONT TARAWERA :
The night of 06/09/1886 in New
Zealand a violent eruption broke out northeast of the
island. This began with the summit of Mount Wahanga
which was literally blown forming a thick black cloud
that created a storm. Then still in the night the Mount
Tarawera and Ruawahia entered in eruption.
During the eruption a volume of 0,30
dof ash is estimated to have been ejected over more
than 16.000 Km².
The eruptive cloud would have reached a height of 10
km altitude. Only 2.Km³
lava were ejected. Three Maori villages were buried.
A long crack of 17.km has
been created during the eruption. (see cons).
The largest eruptions of the volcano took place
in : 1886 (VEI 5), 2880±20 BC (VEI 6), 5330±20
BC (VEI 5), 6580±20 BC (VEI 6).
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