is bombarded with cosmic particles (nuclei of atoms) OF high-energy
from other stars and supernovas. These are cosmic rays. The
magnetosphere deflects the most of cosmic rays but some
arrive in the atmosphere and there it cause reactions. At
the magnetic equator low energy particles are returned back
to space by the Earth's magnetic field at the magnetic poles,
but the particles of all energies can follow the field lines
down to the top of the atmosphere. Scott E. Forbush The physicist
remarked in 1937 that solar flares mitigate the flow of cosmic
rays. This has been proven by the Pioneer probe 5 in 1960
and it's called the Forbush effect. So when solar activity
is at its maximum, the Earth receives less cosmic rays and
during the minimum of solar activity the Earth receives more
At the maximum
of solar activity of Schwabe
cycle the solar wind prevents these particles to reach
Earth while during the minimum of solar activity the solar
wind is less important then the Earth's atmosphere gets more
cosmic rays. The change in the amount of cosmic rays received
by our planet is approximately 20% between the maximum and
minimum solar activity.
with an energy of :
are of low energy and are produced by the Sun
are produced by supernovae
are produced by pulsars
are produced by galaxies with active nucleus (?)
sare produced by unknown stars
diagram shows the monthly number of sunspots (dotted line)
the intensity of cosmic radiation (solid line). Note the anti-correlation
between the intensity of cosmic radiation and solar activity.
OF COSMIC RAYS
Three Danish researchers (Knud Lassen, Eigil
Friis-Christensen and Henrik Svensmark) think they have explained
how the climate is influenced by the sun. From data of 1984
to 1990 of three satellites they concluded that the variation
of cosmic rays entering the atmosphere was the same as that
of cloudiness. Then in 2011 the results of the CERN experiment
called CLOUD have shown that cosmic rays multiplied at least
tenfold the production of nucleus. However even if it is true
that these cosmic rays have increased the clouds by a factor
of ten, even with that effect, it is still far of the concentration
needed to explain the condensation of the clouds. For in the
report of CERN/CLOUD
they tell us: "Second, we found that the natural rate
of atmospheric ionization, resulting from cosmic rays, can
amplify the nucleation in the conditions of our work (NdT
: It's say with only traces of sulfuric acid and ammonia)
by a factor of up to 10. The amplification by the ions is
particularly pronounced in the cold temperatures of the middle
troposphere and above, where CLOUD found that sulfuric acid
and water vapor can nucleate without the addition of additional
This result leaves open the possibility that cosmic rays may
influence the climate. However, it is premature to conclude
that cosmic rays have a significant influence on the climate
as long as additional nucleating vapors have not been identified,
their rate of amplification by the ions has not be measured
and their ultimate effect on clouds has not been confirmed.".
The clouds that form
at low altitude are relatively warm and composed of fine water
droplets. They would cool the planet by reflecting sunlight
back into space. But the clouds created in high altitude,
are colder as they are composed of ice particles and have
the opportunity to warm the earth by trapping heat.
to satellite data since 1980, Henrik Svensmark and Marsh ND
have concluded that mostly the lowest clouds (within 3 km
altitude) vary the most according to the intensity of cosmic
These three diagrams show the
percentage of change in the cloud coverage of high altitude
(above 8 km altitude), medium altitude (3-8 km), and
low altitude (below 3km) from 1983 to 1994 (thin lines).
On each chart was recorded the number of neutrons it
is the inverse of the variation in solar activity (thick
lines) representing the flow of cosmic rays entering
the atmosphere. The change of the low cloud cover following
the flow of cosmic rays that vary with the solar cycle
of 11 years. (G.
Campbell data and C. Lopate. Updated by E. Friis-Christensen
by personal communication with Marsh and H. Svensmark
N. 6 March 2000, NASA Research Workshop on Climate and
Sun in Tucson, first Arizona.)..
Here the same comparison between the intensity of cosmic
(red curve)and the curve of the
cloud coverage for low level (blue curve)
but this time from 1980-2005. Source : ESA
When cosmic particles enter the atmosphere they should
attract molecules of air and thus should facilitate the condensation
of the water vapor of the atmosphere into the form of clouds
according these researchers. Then according to data from the
ERBE (Expérience sur le Budget du Rayonnement Terrestre)
satellite launched in 1984, the clouds cool the Earth by absorbing
and reflecting a certain amount of solar radiation. So albedo
of the Earth is stronger at the minimum of the solar cycle
than at its maximum.
For our planet the albedo is on average 30% :
5-10% on the seas cloudless
10 to 15% above forests
30-50% on deserts
60 to 85% on snow and ice
Depending on the amount and types of clouds, albedo
of the Earth is very different. The clouds reflect more
light back into space as the cloudless sky. the size
and thickness of clouds, and the size and number of
droplets inside the cloud vary the cloud albedo.
The clouds composed of large drops of water or with
lots of water droplets reflect more light back into
The albedos of clouds various according to J. Gourdeau
Clouds have an albedo superior than of the surface
of the Earth without clouds. So they reflect more sunlight
back into space than does the Earth without clouds so
there is less energy available to heat the Earth's surface
The variation of cosmic rays entering the atmosphere,
varying according to
solar activity, could affect the Cloud layer. Source : CLOUD
OF THE SUN ON CLIMATE
The Sun is our most important energy source.
The solar constant is 1368 W/m2. So the average
energy received by the Earth from the poles to the equator
is the fourth of the solar constant is 342 W/m2.
On the 342 W/m2 received on Earth
from the sun only 160 W/m2 reach the ground because
102 W/m2 are reflected (82 W/m2 by the
atmosphere and 20 W/m2 by the Earth's surface)
and 80 W/m2 are absorbed by the stratospheric
ozone, the water vapor and the tropospheric carbon dioxide.
For that the Earth reach a temperature of 59°F
(15°C) it should 390 W/m2. The 330 W/m2
missing are provide by the atmosphere and constitute
what is called the greenhouse effect.
But it has not be found the mechanism that does
that a small variation in the Sun's energy causes significant
Of the french magazine
Ciel & Espace
When solar activity varies it's the ultraviolet
emission which changes the most. The variation of the ultraviolet
contributes to 30% to the variation of the solar constant
and has effects on the stratospheric ozone layer. At the minimum
of Schwabe cycle the Earth receives less ultraviolet that
leads to create less ozone in the stratosphere, when at the
maximum an increase of 1 to 2% of the ozone concentration
is produced. This last contributes to the greenhouse effect
by absorbing infrared and therefore there this could explain
elevation or drop in temperature during maxima and minima
of the Schwabe cycles.
There are also effects
on the biosphere, the temperature of the stratosphere (thermal
and dynamic balance) capable of bringing changes into the
troposphere, the atmospheric circulation and cloud formation.
When solar activity is at a maximum and that ozone is most
abundant, it would warm the
stratosphere, would intensify the circulation of the Hadley
cell, would shift mid-latitude depressions to the north and
would replicate the latest results of Labitzke and Van Loon.
Change in the stratospheric ozone layer
(in Dobson units) from data TOMS
(Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) on the latitude 65°N-65°S.
dashes represents the solar cycle of 11 years with annual
average solar flux. The
volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 is indicated
to show the effect.
A relationship between the duration of Schwabe
cycle and the surface temperature since 1860 has been found.
The longer the solar cycles are the less high solar activity
is and therefore the solar constant is less important. Which
decreases the temperature on the earth.
curve of length of changes of solar cycles (red)
and the variations in
temperatures in the northern hemisphere (blue)
are virtually superimposed. This
suggests that when the cycles getting shorter, temperatures
rise. This phenomenon
could be explained by the fact that the maxima of activity
cycles, so closer, produce
a denser solar wind and limite the formation of clouds in
The temperature varies from about 32,72°F
(0,40°C) with a change of 4 W/m2 de la constante
solaire. of the solar constant.
This is the difference between the minimum Dalton (1795 to
1830) and 1980.
this, the variation in solar activity also affects sun radiation
and in turn it has effects on the climate of the Earth.
CHANGE AT MEDIUM AND LONG TERM
According to the concentration of carbon 14 and beryllium
14 measured in ice cores, there is a period of 2300 years.
The origin of this variation (Hallstattzeit cycle) is not
yet well known but it is not nevertheless excluded that the
Sun (due to carbon 14) or even ocean circulation participates.
The minimum of this cycle coincides with the Maunder minimum.
So that by 3950 there could be a next little ice age. Currently
the Hallstattzeit cycle is growing and its maximum should
be reached around the year 2800. Some researchers believe
that this could be the cause or one of the causes of global
During the Little Ice Age, the Thames
River in London froze in winter during
the 17th century. This print depicts the icy river in 1683-1684.This coincided
with a period when there was very little sun spots and hence
low solar activity
EVOLUTION OF THE TEMPERATURE ACCORDING
CYCLES AND ACCORDING DAMONS AND JIRIKOWIC 1992 :
temperature in °C
SCHWABE CYCLE IN 11 YEARS
- GLEISSBERG CYCLE IN 90 YEARS
- SUESS CYCLE IN 200 YEARS
- SUM OF THREE CYCLES
OF LINKING BETWEEN THE SUN AND THE CLIMATE
The movement of gas planets makes vary the
angular momentum of the Sun around the barycenter of the Solar
System. All the 179 years the angular momentum of the Sun
varies very quickly like that was the case during the Maunder
Minimum. That could slow the large convection internal currents
of the sun suspected by some scientists to influence the variation
of solar activity. At a low solar activity the diameter of
the Sun is more important, and its speed of rotation is lower
by about 3% than the current speed. When solar activity get
weaker the brightness does the same as it was the case during
the Maunder minimum, as the brightness should have been lower
of about 0,2 to 0,3% than now. More solar activity wanes,
the higher the magnetic field and the solar wind weaken and
therefore the extension of the Earth's magnetic field is reduced.
This allows to more of cosmic rays to enter in the atmosphere.
And so increases cloudiness because cosmic rays promote the
formation of clouds at low altitude which increases the albedo
and thus also reduces the brightness and radiation from the
Sun on Earth.
During the Maunder Minimum the total solar
irradiance long time called "the solar constant"
was lower by 0,25% compared with current period which is 4W/m²
which has had the effect of lowering the temperature 32,45°F
(0,25°C). While ultraviolet (UV) radiation which are only
about 1% of the solar radiative output their variation is
more important than the total solar irradiance. During a variation
of 0,25% of total solar irradiance relative to now, the UV
vary around 10%. The UV have much effect on the atmosphere.
Increasing the temperature of the ionosphere is around 300%
between the minimum and the maximum of the solar activity
cycle of 11 years. So with a major change such as between
the Maunder Minimum and now UV must have varied so much that
it could have had enough effect on the chemistry of the stratosphere
(the ozone layer ...) and its dynamic.
Therefore when a major variation of several
solar cycles that last in average 11 years according to long
term cycles of Suess cycles or Vries, the combination of the
changes of solar radiation, of UV, of brightness, of magnetic
field, of solar wind and therefore of cosmic rays , must be
one of the causes of the evolution of the temperature in the
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