2st PART

 - The ozone layer                  
          - The polar ozone layer depletion
  - The stratosphere in hight latitudes 
- The polar vortex - The stratosphere in low latitudes
- The Q.B.O (Quasi Bisuannuel Oscillation )



The polar vortex

If the polar regions have a large ozone lost spring this is mainly due to the polar vortex.

The topography and the circular shape of Antarctic is such that an extremely cold stratospheric air vortex stagnant (to -148°F (-100°C) in the Antarctic stratosphere and -112°F (-80°C) in the stratosphere of the Arctic), distinct from the rest of the atmosphere, which is formed above the region during the long polar nights. The polar vortex is established in the middle and lower stratosphere above 9,9 miles (16 km) altitude. The wind blowing around the polar vortex can attain a speed of 0,0622 miles (100 meters) per second. The air flows into the polar vortex all winter, becoming cold enough to allow the formation of polar stratospheric clouds that accelerate and increase a destruction of stratospheric ozone when the sunlight returns to the start of spring.

The vortex is generally very stable above Antarctica during the austral winter, because it is a fairly homogeneous continent, well centered at the south pole.

One such vortex also exists in the Arctic, but to a lesser degree. The Arctic region arrange of many and separate land masses and islands that extend around the North Pole, so the air can not circulate also easily in Antarctica and be are unstable. What do the temperature is not as low as in the South Pole.

The polar vortex is what is causing winter depression and severe winters and it is also the polar vortex which determines the undulations of the polar jet.

The Arctic polar vortex
seen from above

The Arctic polar vortex front view
The air in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere
down into the polar vortex

In the Arctic ago vortex, but this phenomenon be less
importantly in Antarctica as stratospheric temperatures
are not as low as in the Antarctic. the circulation
air is different: the ozone comes from the south regularly
and mixes with the polar air from the north. Then the hole
Ozone is less important than that of the southern hemisphere.

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